What does intellectual and developmental disability (I/DD) encompass?
When the DSM-5 was published it changed how mental health conditions are grouped, labeled, and
diagnosed. Previously, intellectual disabilities were their own category in Axis II (a part of the
DSM-IV containing personality disorders and "mental retardation") and other developmental disorders
were found in Axis I (a part of the DSM-IV containing all other clinical disorders).
The DSM-5 did away with the Axis system, the use of IQ as a diagnostic criteria, and created a new chapter that would include intellectual and developmental disabilities: neurodevelopmental disorders.
Neurodevelopmental disorders, or disorders that affect the development of the nervous system, includes broad categories such as:
- Language Disorder
- Speech-Sound Disorder
- Childhood-Onset Fluency Disorder
- Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
- Developmental Coordination Disorder
- Stereotypic Movement Disorder
- Tourette's Disorder
- Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
- Provisional Tic Disorder
- Other Specified Tic Disorder
- Unspecified Tic Disorder
Neurodevelopmental disorders also include more specific diagnoses:
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
- Intellectual Developmental Disorder
- Specific Learning Disorder (an umbrella term to replace learning disorders, but encompasses recognized disorders like dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, etc.)
MUSIC THERAPY & INTELLECTUAL & DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
SOUNDS & WORDS
Music therapy can help support the development of auditory processing skills such as discriminating between various pitches, sounds, and words.
LEARNING & RETENTION
MUSIC AS A
Music therapy can be used to aid memorization, improve readying comprehension, and teach concepts through singing, songwriting, and musical cues.
Music therapy encourages verbal and non-verbal self expression through songwriting, musical improvisation, and having choices withing sessions.
SENSORY MOTOR SKILLS
& MOTOR FUNCTION
Music therapy is a sensory experience that can meet the needs of sensory seekers. It can also help develop motor skills, balance, and coordination.
Expanding Horizons MT is a neurodiversity aligned practice.